- SCOR Publications
To date, capital management solutions have focused on one-dimensional actions, aimed mostly at calibrating capital at the right level in a rather static way. But as insurers are progressively becoming more sophisticated in relation to capital management, economic-based regulations (such as Solvency II) are acting as further catalysts, and the focus is moving towards risk-based capital frameworks.
We are pleased to share with you the last Technical Newsletter on “Innovation in mining – Perspective and new risks”. The mining industry is viewed as a traditional and conservative sector, where changes are resisted and innovation is lagging behind. This Newsletter will demonstrate how the mining industry has always been a source of innovation, consistently striving for better efficiency, safety and environmental and social integration. This issue focuses on recent modernization and analyzes new risks that this may introduce. Within risk-based frameworks, reinsurance solutions are positioned as efficient capital optimization tools, acting on both the capital available and the capital required.
- Petroleum Refining and Insurance part I - Crude Oil Refining: a constantly evolving industry
Refining can be considered by many as a mature and stable industry but it has changed drastically since the 19th century, adapting to its ever-changing and challenging environment. Insurers have had to follow this transformation and adapt their way of underwriting these risks. Part I of this Technical Newsletter takes us on the journey the refining industry has had to travel.
Following on from SCOR’s Guide to Earthquakes Part I and II also available online, this third issue will focus on developing an understanding of the key inputs, strengths and limitations of existing earthquake models used by the industry today. We also look ahead at what the future will deliver in terms of research, data, and models that will enable the industry to write earthquake risk with more confidence.
Initially used to cover hail threats, Agriculture insurance is more than 100 years old. Today, innovative tools and new techniques based on satellites technology are available to improve, develop and expand this domain. The aim of this Technical Newsletter, published over two volumes, is to provide an understanding of the different types of satellites that can be used for agriculture insurance, and how they can be used. In the second volume we will focus on satellite imagery technology and assess the key factors to be taken into account in the agricultural and insurance decisionmaking process.
- Guide to Earthquakes Part II - Risk assessment: Earthquake forecasts, predictions and probabilistic analysis
This second issue of Guide to Earthquakes focuses on earthquakes risk assessment. Experts discuss key historical earthquake events of significance for catastrophe modelling and the re(insurance) industry and they also explore the debate over whether it’s possible to predict where and when earthquakes will occur. This newsletter provides a range of perspectives on the task of exploring the nature of earthquakes and their implications.
- Composite Insulated Panels (CIPS) or Insulated Sandwich Panels - The System, Fire Hazards & Loss Mitigation
Over the last decades there have been significant fire losses (Property Damage/Business Interruption) associated with the use of insulated sandwich panels. As the frequency and severity of losses has been increasing, it has become necessary to mitigate the risks for building occupants and fire fighters, and to reduce property losses related to the use of insulated sandwich panels.
This Technical Newsletter is an introduction to Earthquakes: why and where they occur and how they are measured? Five years have passed since the momentous 2010 – 2011 series of earthquakes across Haiti, Chile, New Zealand and Japan. This anniversary marks an opportune time to assess where we are in our understanding of earthquake risk, and the status of the models used to manage that risk within the (re)insurance industry.
IDI is a product that has already been adopted by many countries around the world, and is currently in the process of being implemented by many others. This Technical Newsletter includes insights into IDI around the world, and looks at cover, benefits and exclusions, the procurement process and technical inspection services, and also how IDI is improving the quality of the construction industry.
Since 2008, insurers have expressed their interest in being more involved in drawing up and implementing victims’ life plans. In particular, they have proposed that “measures should be put into place to involve victims in the improvement of their health, and in their professional reintegration”. Insurers are increasingly leaning towards an approach that aims to facilitate the social and/or professional reintegration of victims, and showing their desire to move from a technical and financial approach towards a more human one.
This article considers whether natural catastrophes are universally reinsurable by reference to the characteristics of insurable risks, with particular emphasis on the need for risks to be calculable, given the inherent nature and limits of scientific knowledge. Notwithstanding some historic market failures to cope with natural catastrophes, these are primarily related to dislocations of the direct insurance markets and often pre-date the existence of robust catastrophe models. These models are in a phase of rapid development, supported by the latest technology and an increase in the number of specialist suppliers. Sufficient reinsurance capacity exists today to protect the level of insured catastrophe risk, but will need to scale-up to match the growing needs of developing economies.
Catastrophic fires in tunnels have resulted in loss of life, large property losses and relatively long business interruption periods. In the wake of such fires, authorities tend to focus their efforts almost exclusively on addressing fire safety issues. Property conservation and business continuity aspects are generally not considered. From a risk management standpoint (including risk financing/transfer) this situation is not sustainable. Fire protection solutions should be included as part of the overall design of a transportation tunnel.
This paper considers the main catastrophic fire events worldwide since 1949. The study begins by providing a full description of tunnel risk, fire hazard, aggravating factors and fire protection considerations. It then investigates loss prevention solutions including fire protection engineering, according to globally recognized standards (National Fire Protection Association – NFPA).
Seasonal hurricane forecasts are eagerly anticipated each year by coastal residents and businesses, emergency management agencies, and of course insurers, reinsurers and holders of US wind exposed Cat Bonds. In view of the potential societal impact of hurricanes, forecasting techniques are discussed widely in the scientific literature, where several different forecasting approaches have been put forward (Gray 1984; Elsner and Jagger 2006; Vitart 2006; Wang et al. 2009; Saunders and Lea 2005; LaRow et al. 2010; Vecchi et al. 2011). Many of these approaches are implemented by forecasting groups that provide regular and publicly available seasonal forecasts. The performance of forecasts in the 2013 season was unsatisfactory where hurricane activity was significantly overestimated by all. This raises the central question: “How skillful are seasonal forecasts?” that this paper addresses by comparing past forecasts with observed hurricane activity and introducing the reader to statistical measures of “skill”. We also consider the application of these forecasts to the (re)insurance industry.
The Deepwater Horizon accident has led to a re-evaluation of deepwater drilling procedures. New regulations have been implemented with a view to preventing future oil spill incidents and improving the health and safety of both the environment and offshore workers.
This seems particularly relevant in a technological environment where an increasing number of oil and gas projects involving ultra-deep drilling are being presented by various players.
Most people in the oil production business believe that the era of easy oil discovery is over, and many of today’s oil and gas reservoirs are indeed to be found in increasingly difficult locations with complex geologies. These locations include large, ultra-deep oil and gas reservoirs.
The (re)insurance sector still views these projects as extremely risky. SCOR’s objective is to incorporate these new prospects into our existing portfolios as carefully as possible.
SCOR Global P&C’s Business Solutions division currently deals with a large number of ultra-deep drilling projects. It is important for the underwriters, lawyers, regulators, financiers and engineers involved to understand the risk exposure linked to these projects and to verify that the insureds are closely following the new post-Macondo regulations.
- SCOR Global P&C Guide to Hurricanes: An introduction to quantifying the hazard and managing the peril
- The French market and Motor Third Party Liability: 2011 analysis of serious bodily injury compensation
07|2012 EN | FR
- Lessons for Insurance: Risk Management and Engineering in the major Earthquakes of 2010-2011
12|2011 EN | ES
- The challenge of Food Security and the role of Micro-Insurance and locally-based Insurance Solutions for Emerging Countries
07|2011 EN | ES
- The French market and Motor Third Party Liability: 2010 analysis of serious bodily injury compensation
EN | ES
- Environmental Liability in the European Union: How the (re)insurance industry is developing solutions in a fast-evolving context
EN | DE | ES
- The French market and Motor Third Party Liability: 2009 analysis of serious bodily injury compensation
06|2010 EN | FR
- Italy - Main issues and trends in Motor Third Liability bodily injury claims compensation
EN | IT
- The European Market and Motor Third Party Liability: Compensation and reparation for serious bodily injury in Western Europe
- Motor Third Party Liability in France
- Inherent defects construction insurance and sustainable development : a long-term challenge
- Infrastructure stimulus packages : their impact on the Engineering Treaty Re/Insurance market
- The French Market and Motor Third Party Liability
- The French Market and Motor Third Party Liability: Analysis of serious bodily injury compensation
- The French market and Medical Malpractice
- An Illustrative Example of Pricing Risk
- Using the past to predict economic risks
- The French Market and Motor Third Party Liability: Analysis of serious bodily injury compensation in 2007
Digital technologies have deeply transformed our societies and the economy; it also created new risks. This publication, dedicated to Cyber risk will show a global picture of the cyber threats landscapes and how cyber (re)insurance market is developing and the shape it is taking, as well as trends, challenges and key drivers for its development. Actually, it will tackle the solutions and how technologies and sciences can help us to solve many problems
Les nouvelles technologies sont en train de révolutionner le monde de la construction, il nous a donc paru primordial de suivre leur application dans le futur. Parmi celles-ci, nous en avons retenu trois : le BIM (Buillding Information Modelling), l’instrumentation des ouvrages par cordes optiques et les technologies relatives aux nanomatériaux. Ces technologies ne sont-elles qu’un effet de mode ou au contraire sont-elles nécessaires ?
In this FOCUS publication entitled "Managing the consequences of macroeconomic and (geo)political risks: What roles for (re)insurers?”, experts in the fields of economics, mathematics and (re)insurance look at how to incorporate economic scenarios into strategic decision making, and at the role for (re)insurers with respect to the economy. The articles provide a range of perspectives on the management of political risks, and explore the new opportunities that they bring for the industry.
L’objectif de ce FOCUS est d'analyser les conséquences d'une réglementation thermique (la RT 2012) sur la responsabilité décennale des constructeurs dans le cadre de cette nouvelle disposition législative. Est-ce que cette loi de transition énergétique va encadrer, va délimiter, va définir un peu mieux cette responsabilité des constructeurs vis-à-vis de la performance énergétique ?
In the context of COP21 taking place in December 2015 in Paris, this FOCUS publication on “Climate Risk Modelling” aims to provide an insight into thoughts and discussions between climatologists, economists, modellers, actuaries, and (re)insurance industry professionals on climate risks and their insurability. These discussions took place during the SCOR Foundation seminar on Climate Risks on 9-10 June 2015 in Paris.
- Gaining a strategic edge through capital management - Key issues faced by the P&C (re)insurance industry
Under the pressure of regulators and capital stakeholders, capital management has now become one of the main preoccupations of (re)insurance leaders. Managing the capital of a (re)insurance company is all about optimizing capital under multiple constraints and seemingly conflicting objectives, such as solvency, growth and profitability. This FOCUS publication entitled “Gaining a strategic edge through capital management – Key issues faced by the P&C (re)insurance industry” is composed of twelve articles and addresses the general and technical aspects of capital management.
This focus analyses the Motor Insurance & Reinsurance market from various different angles, ranging from technical to general aspects of motors. It provides a comprehensive analysis of the key materials required for motor risk underwriting, along with an in-depth analysis of the green card system and mechanical breakdown insurance. To address the technological advances being made in the motor field, two articles are devoted to the impact of telematics and autonomous vehicles on (re)insurance underwriting. One last article looks at bodily injury compensation in Western Europe.
This Focus publication looks at the effects of wind on complex structures. The traditional testing method used until now consisted of wind tunnel testing on a model of the proposed structure. More recently, a different approach has emerged: digital modelling. This method raises a number of questions: is it reliable? Does it accurately simulate reality? Are its results relevant? In line with SCOR Global P&C’s tradition of sharing its knowledge and experience, we invite you to read the points of view of three experts, as expressed at our 8th Inherent Defects Morning. This publication currently exists in French only.
- Supply Chain and Contingent Business Interruption (CBI) - A perspective on Property and Casualty
2013 EN | SP
The record-breaking natural catastrophe losses of 2011, along with the more recent Superstorm Sandy, have highlighted the issues surrounding modern supply chains in terms of insurance exposures and losses. In view of the global impact of such major events on both the risk management and (re)insurance sides, we decided to dedicate our 2013 Annual Conference to the key issues surrounding CBI and to exploring ways in which to successfully manage BI/CBI challenges. This SCOR Focus report, based on the speakers’ presentations made during this event, is designed to bring the insights gained during the seminar to a wider audience unable to join us at SCOR’s headquarters in Paris, and to build further on the discussions that took place at the event.
The present report gathers the different presentations of the Matinée Décennale, and is organized in two parts:
- The development of a wind farm project; the different steps, the inevitable difficulties and the insurance needs.
- The risks inherent in the construction of a wind turbine.
This publication currently exists in French only.
- Climate change management: how to transform threat into opportunities for the Re/Insurance industry
SCOR Canada is pleased to present the 2015 SCOR Report compiling results of the main Canadian insurance companies. This report allows us to compare and analyse the different results from 57 companies representing more than 92% of market premium, in the last three years (2013, 2014, 2015).